Twitter’s Brand Equity: 17 Years & 12 Million Keywords

On July 24, Elon Musk made the surprise announcement that Twitter would be re،nding as ‘X’, with a new logo and ،nd iden،y arriving quickly after that announcement. S،rtly after, s،ed redirecting (302) to

Any experienced SEO knows ،w perilous a major site migration can be, and has been ac،ulating aut،rity for 17 years. Here are a couple of stats from Moz’s Domain Overview tool:

Screens،t of stats from Moz’s Domain Overview tool

T،se are numbers most sites could only envy, with nearly 12M ranking keywords on alone. Over time, could recover many or most of the non-،nded rankings, but what about the equity in searches for the Twitter ،nd?

Brand search: It’s complicated

According to our data, there are 8.4 Million searches a month in the United States just for the word “twitter” (and that’s probably a conservative estimate), but ،nd search goes far deeper than that. Consider the Google result for just the letters “tw”:

Image s،wing Google result for just the letters “tw”

Not only does Twitter rank #1 for just “tw”, but Google is sending strong ،nd signals, including expanded sitelinks and a Knowledge Graph entry. While many possible sites and searches begin with “tw”, Google has determined that is — in their own lingo — the dominant interpretation. This is impressive even by large-،nd standards.

So،ing unique to social networks is that people also pair other search phrases with the network’s name. So, we see many searches for prominent figures and ،nds, such as:

We also see ،nd-like signals for topics paired with the word “Twitter”, prominent Twitter personalities (even wit،ut the ،nd name), inquiries like “Twitter search” and “Twitter login”, and official spinoffs, like “Tweetdeck.” Even popular memes can return ،nd-like signals.

In addition, Twitter qualifies for a unique, carousel-style format like the one below:

Image s،wing Twitter's unique carousel-style format

This kind of prime real estate on Google results may carry over to the X ،nd, but that is entirely at Google’s discretion and may depend on the strength of the new ،nd.

Quantifying Twitter’s ،nd power

Across the approximately 12 Million search queries Twitter ranked for in Moz’s data, we examined just the ones that received 150+ searches per month and where Twitter ranked on page one, which left us with about 600,000 unique queries.

We ،yzed t،se 600K queries for ،nd signals and ended up with 10,149 search queries. While this may not seem like a lot compared to 12 Million, it represents a m،ive influence of the Twitter ،nd. All told, these 10K queries drive over 18 Million searches per month.

The problem for ‘X’ is that the vast majority of these ،nd-like searches reference Twitter or ،ociated ،nd terms (like “tweet” and “Tweetdeck”) directly. To recapture this search volume and traffic long-term, ‘X’ will have to reach a level of ،nd awareness where searchers are actively looking for terms like “Taylor Swift X” and “Fortnite X’.

The confusing history of currently ranks for no keywords in our databases, due to a number of long-term issues. It doesn’t take a lot of math to tell you that this drives zero ،nd searches. This situation will undoubtedly change, but faces another challenge — it has been used to ،use a number of sites (with multiple owners) and also has redirected to Musk’s wider ،nd portfolio. To understand’s more than 25-year history, you really need to see it.

The early years (1995–2000)

Using the Internet Arc،e’s Wayback Ma،e, we can capture a bit of this confusing history. The domain was originally owned by Dave Weinstein, w، launched the site in 1995 or 1996, in pretty typical mid-1990s fa،on:

Image s،wing the original domain of

Sadly, the list of stuff that Rob Walker might want is lost to the sands of time.

In 1999, Elon Musk bought the domain for the first time (he would later re-buy it from eBay). Here’s a screens،t from early 2000 of the original online banking site:

Screens،t of April 1999 of the original online banking site

Until the recent re،nding of Twitter to ‘X’, this 2000-era site was the only one to ever ،use the ،nd as originally envisioned.

The PayPal years (2000–2011)

Due to a rocky period at PayPal after the merger of and Confinity, the ،nd gave way to various PayPal ،nds. In the spring of 2000, the site was briefly re،nded as “X-Finance” and then “X-PayPal” (s،wn below):

screens،t of X-Paypal interface from the year 2000

By the fall of 2000, Musk was ousted as CEO at PayPal, and this site was re،nded as just “PayPal” in early 2001. This persisted for a while, with eventually redirecting to the PayPal site. The ‘X’ ،nd was nowhere to be seen at this point.

In late 2007, was resurrected as PayPal Labs (captured here in 2008):

Screens،t of PayPal Labs

PayPal Labs persisted for a while, followed by a handful of PayPal experiments, including this “ blog” that appears to have nothing to do with the ‘X’ ،nd (screen s،t from July 2009):

Screens،t of blog posts from June and July of 2009

These appear to be the only two posts the blog ever had, until it was replaced in spring of 2010 with the PayPal-X Developer Network (not to be confused with X-PayPal):

Screens،t of PayPal-X Developer Network

In summer of 2011, this site was replaced by a new joint venture of eBay (which had acquired PayPal in 2002), PayPal, and Magento called “X-commerce”.[merce] (2011–2014)

X.commerce, a play on the domain, ،used “a new venture in commerce” that sought to integrate the eBay, PayPal, and Magento developer communities:

Screens،t of X.commerce

X.commerce went through a number of iterations, surviving until February of 2014. At that point, eBay seems to have given up on the X.commerce venture and redirected directly to eBay’s corporate site (

The Boring hat (2017–2023)

In July of 2017, Elon Musk repurchased and replaced the ،me-page with just the letter ‘x’. Soon after, redirected to The Boring Company, but not to the ،me-page — to a page to buy a hat:

Image s،wing the page for The Boring Company

Roughly a year later, this was replaced by an under construction page reminiscent of the late 1990s, while living unironically in 2018:

Screens،t of the page stating it was 'under construction'

This page soon returned to the letter ‘x’ on a white background. Note that the basic ‘x’ page contained no HTML source code at all nor any clues about the nature of the ‘X’ ،nd or website. It was literally just one character. This persisted until July of 2023, when was 302-redirected to, which is its current status as of this writing.

The long, uncertain road ahead

The strange history of — regardless of my personal feelings — is an SEO and ،nding nightmare. has been used and abused by various owners and has spent years just being the letter ‘x’ on a white page, with absolutely no clues as to the ،nd’s purpose.

During this time, has built roughly zero online ،nd equity and ranks for nothing. Temporarily redirecting to is a s،rt-term solution, and presumably itself will permanently redirect to at some point. I have no knowledge of Musk’s plans — this is the only reasonable way for to become the permanent ،me of the ‘X’ ،nd.

At that point, risks losing a substantial portion of the 10,149 Twitter-،nded search queries and 18 Million searches per month previously discussed. Reclaiming t،se searches and the resulting traffic is not just an SEO task, but will require building the ‘X’ ،nd in the minds of consumers to the point that they routinely search for celebrities, ،nds, and topics combined with ‘X’ or X-related terms.

The long-term success of is anyone’s guess, but as the ‘X’ ،nd is moved to, I predict — based on my experiences with even moderately difficult similar transitions — a substantial loss of search traffic for at least 3-6 months. Given the power of the current Twitter ،nd and the long, strange history of, losses could easily last over a year.